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G00004
Abhibhayatana
abhibhayatana (Skt.). The 'eight masteries', or eight fields of the mastery or control of perception. These are meditational exercises described in the *Pali Canon similar to those using coloured objects (*kasina) but in this case based on features or areas of one's own body as the focus of concentration in order to transcend the Desire Realm (*kama-dhatu). The eight masteries are:
(1) perception of forms (colours and shapes) externally on one's body and limited forms beyond it;
(2) perception of forms externally on one's body and of unlimited external forms beyond it;
(3) the non-perception of forms on one's own body and the perception of small external forms;
(4) the non-perception of forms on one's body and the perception of large external forms;
(5)-(8) no forms are perceived on one's own body but the colours blue, yellow, white, and red are perceived in that order.
Items (5)-(8) are identical with kasina exercises (5)-(8), and with the third stage of the eight liberations (*ashta-vimoksha).



G00005
Abhidharma
Higher Dharma. The part of the Tripitaka that contains the scholarly analysis of phenomena. See also Tripitaka.


G00006
Abhirati
Meaning 'Land of Delight.' The eastern paradise, pure realm of Akshobhya . Abhirati distinguishes itself from other pure realms by the leading role of women. Here Akshobya teaches the dharma to women.
Great masters like Vimalakirti and Milarepa dwell in this pure land.
Milarepa's disciple visited Abhirati. It is said in the Vimalakirti Nirdesha Sutra that Vimalakirti came from this realm.
Dakinis carried the crystal stupa and relics of Milarepa to Abhirati.


G00007
Absolute Truth
Also ultimate truth
See Two Truths


G00011
acharya
Title given to teachers, masters and authors.
Nowadays the term is used to refer to the academic degree of "Master." In Tibetan writings atsara is commonly used to refer to itinerant Indian yogins, much the way the word sadhu is used nowadays.

Atsara is a corruption of the Sanskrit word acharya.


G00012
Action Seal or Seal of Action
One of the four seals (mudra).
Tantric consort' female partner of a male tantrci practitioner. Completion stage (rdzogs rim) practice.
Also a hand gesture (mudra) symbolizing enlightened activity ('phrin las)


G00825
Adventitious
Also incidental.


G00013
Afflicted Consciousness
The seventh consciousness. As used here it has two aspects: the immediate consciousness which monitors the other consciousness making them continuous and the klesha consciousness which is the continuous presence of self.
See Eight Consciousnesses.


G00014
Afflictive Emotions
see Kleshas


G00915
Agama (Skt.)
"That which has come down" from the past to the present. A class of sutras of the early Buddhist schools that were later preserved in the mahayana tradition.


G00015
Aggregates
See Skandha


G00016
Ahimsa
non-harming


G00020
Ajita
"Unconquerable" Name of Maitreya


G00025
Alaya Consciousness
Of the eight classes of consciousness, this is the undifferentiated, primordial continuum that underlies the other seven. This all-basis is the repository for all previously accumulated karmic imprints and habitual tendencies.

According to the Chittamatra school this is the eighth consciousness and is often called the ground consciousness or store-house consciousness. See alo Eight Consciousness


G00029
Amrita
ambrosia, liquids, blessed during ceremomies.


G00032
Animal Realm
see Six Realms


G00916
Annuttara Yoga (Skt.)
The highest of the four categories of tantra in Tibetan Buddhism. The characteristic feature of annuttara yoga tantra is that the yidam or wisdom deity is not seen as being external to the practitioner. It is seen as the embodiment of the practitioner's own mind itself, and therefore called the inner level of tantra because the deity is understood as being internal.


G00034
antelope
ri dvags lpags = doeskin, antelope skin


G00828
Antidote
Also remedy


G00036
Anuttara Yoga Tantra
The highest of the four categories of tantra in the sarma, or New Translation school, of Tibetan Buddhism. Examples of anuttara yoga are the Karma Pakshi, Hevajra, Chakrasamvara, and kalachakra tantras.



G00039
Appearance


G00917
Appearance, Increase, and Attainment
In the first phase of the bardo, this threefold shutdown process or subtle dissolution normally occurs when the dying person's outer breath has stopped but the inner winds have not yet ceased. This sequence follows the coarse dissolution of the elements and precedes the direct experience of the ground clear light.


G00042
Arhat
Worthy one, or "free from four maras," or foe destroyer. An arhat, having exhausted all defilements and mental afflictions, passes into nirvana. Their number and names may vary in different texys and traditions. In Tibetan tradition their number is usually 16.
The sixteen arhats are:
1. Pindola bharadvaja
2. Kanakavatsa
3. Kanaka bharadvja
4. Subindha (Nandimitra)
5. Nakula
6. Bhadra
7. Kalika
8. Vajriputra
9. Gopaka (Jivaka)
10. Panthaka
11. Rahula
12. Nagasena
13. Angaja
14. Vanavasin
15. Ajita
16. Cuda panthaka
Arhati is female.


G00044
Arrow
A ritual implement.
The Thousand-armed Cherezik holds an arrow in one of his hands.


G00045
Arrow Banner
Arrow with colored banners attached to it. Ritual implement used during empowerments, marriage and fertility ceremonies, and harvesting festivals.


G00046
Asamkhya
Innumerable. Limitless number.


G00047
Asamskrita
Unproduced; unconditioned; quality of Nirvana


G00055
Aspect
subjective aspect, grahakara, 'dzin rnam
objective aspect, grahyakara, bzung rnam


G00056
Assembly of Noble Ones


G00057
Asura Realm
See six realms


G00058
Asura, Demi Gods
One of the six existences.  The asuras are dominated by jealousy and envy and suffer as a result of their constant quarreling and fighting.


G00827
Asura, Demi Gods
One of the six existences.  The asuras are dominated by jealousy and envy and suffer as a result of their constant quarreling and fighting.


G00860
Ati
very, exceedingly, surpassing


G00059
Ati Yoga
See dzokchen.


G00061
Avadhuti
Central channel; a subtle channel of the body, running from the base of the spineto the crown of the head.


G00063
Avatamsaka Sutra
Flower Garland Sutra, the longer title is Buddha Avatamsaka Sutra.
Quoted in the following books:
The Adornment of the Middle Way


G00064
Avici
One of the eight hot hells,  the most severe one.


G00065
Avidya
Ignorance.


G00066
bachog
Gaming table


G00068
Bamboo Grove
The grove where the first Buddhist monastery was built by King Bimbisara.


G00069
Banner of Victory
One of the eight auspicious symbols. The banner symbolizes the Buddha's having conquered all negativity and limitations.


G00070
Bardo
Intermediate state or interval; most often referring to the period between death and rebirth.
There are six bardos:
1. Bardo of birth, skye ba'i bar do
2. Bardo of dreams, mi lam bardo
3. Bardo of meditation, sam gtan gi bar do
4. Bardo of the moment before death, 'chi kha'i bar do
5. Bardo of dharmata or suchness, chos nyi bar do
6. Bardo of becoming, srid pa'i bar do

See books on death & dying


G00071
Bases of Perception
The fifth link of the Twelve Links of Interdependence


G00072
Becoming
The tenth link of the Twelve Links of Interdependence


G00073
Beginningless Time
thok ma med nas = From beginningless time


G00074
Beings


G00075
Bell
Musical instrument used during certain practices.


G00076
below, lower


G00077
Benefit of Beings
For the benfit of (all) beings


G00078
Benza
Tibetan transliteration of the Sanskrit word vajra.




G00082
Bhadra Kalpa
"Good aeon" The present kalpa, a 1000 buddhas will appear during this aeon


Bhikshu
Bhikshu
See gelong.

G00087
Bhikshu
See gelong.


G00088
Bhumi
A level in the series of stages of spiritual development of a bodhisattva on the path to buddhahood. The mahayana tradition recognizes ten such levels, often called the bodhisattva levels; the vajrayana recognizes thirteen.


G00770
Bhumisparsha Mudra
A gesture, hand pose, which denotes the calling of the earth to witness the defect of evil as represented by Mara, by Buddha Shakyamuni. This during the forty days of meditation under the Bodhi tree. The right is bent at the wrist over the knee and touches the ground. The left hand rests in the lap, palm facing upwards (dhyana mudra).


G00089
Bilva Fruit


G00090
Birth
The eleventh link of the Twelve Links of Interdependence


G00918
Bliss
Pleasure, happiness, well-being, peace, comfort.


G00091
Bodhgaya
A town in Bihar, India, where Buddha Shakyamuni attained enlightenment under the bodhi tree. The Mahabodhi Temple was built there during Ashoka's period. Bodhgaya has been a major pilgrimage site for centuries.


G00094
Bodhichitta
Mind of awakening, enlightened mind, altruistic mind.  Relative bodhichitta is the desire to practice the six paramitas to attain buddhahood for the benefit of all sentient beings; absolute bodhichitta is immediate insight into the emptiness of phenomena.


G00096
Bodhisattva
In the mahayana tradition, a bodhisattva dedicates his or her existence throughout all rebirths to the attainment of enlightenment in order to liberate other beings who are suffering in samsara. The bodhisattva ideal is in contrast to the way of arhats and pratyekabuddhas, who attain nirvana solely for their own benefit.



G00097
Bodhisattva vow
The essence of the bodhisattva vow is to preserve the mind of bodhichitta that sincerely wishes to benefit all beings, not merely for the temporary alleviation of sufferings but to bring all beings without exception to a state of full and complete awakening. The bodhisattva vow is received from a master who has maintained the vow unbroken.


G00099
bolden
Small matress


G00100
Bon
The religion of pre-Buddhist Tibet, believed by its adherents to have been introduced by Shenrap from an area located in what is now Persia. Bon now reflects many aspects of Tibetan Buddhism but still retains a distinct identity.


G00101
Boots


G00102
Bow


G00919
Buddha
Perfectly awakened and developed one, one who has relinquished all defilements, obscurations, and afflictions, manifested all perfect qualities and wisdom, and fully realized all objects of knowledge in a state of total omniscience.
One of the Three Jewels in which one takes refuge.


G00107
chagam
Cabinet


G00108
chagdzo
Bursar in a monastery


G00111
cham
Lama dance


G00113
Chandali
inner heat yoga. A vajrayana term for a kind  of psychic heat generated and experienced through certain meditative practices. This heat serves to burn up all types of obstacles and confusion. One of the six yogas of Naropa.


G00116
chang
Tibetan beer brewed from barley.


G00118
Charya Tantra
The second of the four tantras of the New Translation school of Tibetan Buddhism. It emphasizes external ritual with internal visualization. See also anutarra yog tantra, kriya tantra, and yoga tantra.


G00121
Chigyap Khenpo
The Lord Chamberlain of the traditional Tibetan government.


G00122
Cho
Meditation practice in which the meditator offers his or her body in order to overcome the false belief in and attachment to the ego, including the fear associated with the ego’s dissolution. The practice was widely taught by Machik Lapdrön, who received it from the Indian teacher Phadampa Sangye.


G00123
cho gyal
Dharma King


G00124
Cho Si Nyi Den
Traditional political ideology of Tibet, combining the the secular and the religious affairs.


G00125
cho thri
Stand or table used to place offerings.


G00126
chogtse
Table


G00130
chokyong
Dharma Protector


G00131
Chuzhi Gangdruk
Literally meaning "four rivers and six ranges." Another name for Kham in Eastern Tibet. A guerilla movement, existing in the 1950s used it for the name of their organization.


G00920
Circumambulation
The act of moving oneself in clockwise direction around a sacred person, place, object, or thing; taught by the Buddha as a means to accumulate merit and purify wrongdoing, especially that of the the body.


G00921
Clear Light, Luminosity
The essential nature of the mind on the sublest level, which can be considered synonymous with buddha nature (sugatagarbha, bde gshegs snying po). Although ever present within the continuum of every sentient being, it is normally obscured and thus ordinarily experienced only after the dissolution of elements and the threefold shutdown processes are completed at the time of death. Recognition of the clear light can be cultivated through the familiarization by a practitioner who has trained accordingly. Full recognition is considered to be attainment of realization of the dharmakaya. With regard to the clear light, a further distinction is made between two aspects. The first, the ground clear light (gzhi'i 'od gsal) or mother clear light ('od gsal ma), is the aforementioned presence of the dharmakaya that naturally appears at the moment of death, but cannot be recognized by an ordinary being without sufficient prior familiarization. The second, the path of clear light (lam gyi 'od gsal) or child clear light )'od gsal bu), refers to that process of familiarization whereby the practitioner cultivates realization of this essential mature through meditative experience in life. When these two aspects conjoin completely, this is known as the "meeting of mother and child clear light" and is equivalent to the attainment of perfect awakening or buddhahood.


G00135
Comparison
Analogy


G00136
Compassion
Active concern for the suffering of all sentient beings and the wish that they should be free from suffering. Chenrezik is the embodiment of the compassion of all buddhas.


G00922
Completion Stage
The second of two vajrayana or tantric stages of yidam meditation in which the meditator dissolves the previously established visualization and allows the mind to come to rest in its natural state.


G00143
Conception Aggregate
One of the five aggregates, skandhas


G00144
Conceptual Thought
Process of thinking and creating concepts.


G00145
Conch Shell, Right Turning, White
One of the eight auspicious symbols


G00147
Confession of Downfalls
Confession of the transgression of vows. The Tibetan term can refer to the 35 Buddhas (of the Sutra of Downfalls). Or Sutra in Three Parts.

See the books: Confession of Downfalls and Taking the Bodhisattva Vow


G00148
Consciousness
The third link of Twelve Links of Interdependence


G00149
Consciousness Aggregate
One of the five aggregates, skandhas


G00150
Contact
The sixth link of the Twelve Links of Interdependence


G00151
Cover, covering


G00152
Craving
The eighth link of the Twelve Links of Interdependence


G00153
Creation and Completion
Two stages that are the means and knowledge of vajrayana practice. The creation phase, the visualization, is based on pure perception (perceiving sight, sound, and thought as deity, mantra, and wisdom). The completion stage is resting in the natural state of mind.


G00154
Crossed Vajra


G00155
Crystal Mala


G00156
Curved Knife


G00157
Dabdop
Police force consiting og monks, who were responsible for the displine of the monasteries and during religious festivals.