Contents : Introduction. I. Buddhist critical spirituality in history and culture : 1. Sakyamuni's critical spirituality and india's crisis. 2. Nagarjuna's historicity on the basis of suhrliekha and ratnavali. 3. Buddha's love and human love with focus on Kuan-yin Bodhisattva. II. Nagarjuna and Madhyamika dialectic of critical spirituality : 1. Nagarjuna’s dialectic analyzed in terms of Anvaya-Vyatireka. 2. Abhidharmika logical crisis and madhyamika dialectical solution. 3. Nagarjuna and Upayahrdayasastra. 4. Structural linkage between Nagarjuna’s dialectic and logic. III. Chinese Buddhist critical spirituality and its culture : 1. The significance of Chinese Buddhist philosophy for the contemporary world. 2. The Chinese Madhyamika seng-chao’s paradoxical method of argument. 3. Heart Sutra translated by Hsuan-Tzang and Kumarajiva and its cultural impact. 4. Critical classification of Buddhist doctrines and its future. IV. Buddhist critical spirituality and contemporary world : 1. Buddhist critical spirituality in India and the world today. 2. Kuan-Yin Bodhisattva cult and Amitabha Buddha. 3. Natural law as basis of communication between theistic religions and non-theistic Buddhism. 4. Buddha-Dharma and natural law towards a trans-cultural universal ethics. Bibliography. Index.